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Clinton spillway. The dam for Clinton Lake was constructed on the Wakarusa River in the late 1970s, and the spillway was carved out below the dam to hold excess water to prevent flooding if the lake's water level exceeded its capacity. The spillway provides a rare vertical view of a sequence of rock layers that stacked one on top of the other ...Vertebrate fossils—of gliding reptiles that dominated the sky, of sharks and swimming reptiles that ruled the sea, of dinosaurs and mammoths that roamed the land—are embedded in Kansas rocks and sediments. Some are common in specific locations. Others, such as dinosaurs, are rare. Several types of sharks and fish lived in the Pennsylvanian ...Fossils of the large, swimming reptiles called mosasaurs are common in western Kansas chalk beds, which were deposited in Cretaceous seas. Although mosasaur species varied in length, some grew to be more than 50 feet long. The longest one found in Kansas was about 40 feet long. Mosasaurs had long bodies, sharp teeth, and paddle-like limbs.Mining and quarrying. Kansas has a long history of producing industrial rocks and minerals, which include any rock and mineral of economic value, excluding metallic rocks and …The Oread Limestone, a formation common in eastern Kansas, was named in 1894 by Erasmus Haworth, the first director of the Kansas Geological Survey. He named it after Mount Oread, the hill on which the University of Kansas is located and where the limestone cropped out. The Dakota Formation, a familiar rock unit in central Kansas, got its name ... The KGS county geologic mapping program makes basic geologic information about the state available to the public. Topographic maps produced by the U.S. Geological Survey show natural and manmade features on the surface as well as elevation contours. Topographic maps of Kansas in varying levels of detail are available from the KGS.Coal mining. Coal shovel. Coal was likely mined from a hillside near Fort Leavenworth in northeastern Kansas as early as 1827, the year the fort was established. By the late 1850s, Missourians were mining coal for use by blacksmiths near what is now Weir, in southeastern Kansas. Just before and after the Civil War, coal production became ...The 300-acre Overland Park Arboretum and Botanical Gardens in Johnson County encompasses several miles of mulched walking trails winding through wooded hills and valleys as well as manicured parkland and gardens. The trails provide a close-up look at Pennsylvanian -age limestone outcrops and younger alluvial fill— silt, sand, and other ...4 Images. In eastern Kansas, most water used for drinking, industry, and other purposes comes from surface water sources, mainly larger rivers and lakes. These include the Kansas, Missouri, Cottonwood, and Neosho rivers and constructed reservoirs created by damming rivers. Although western Kansans depend more on groundwater, a few reservoirs ...Sinkholes, also called sinks, develop slowly when the ground subsides a few inches a year or catastrophically when the surface drops tens of feet per second. A common instigator is groundwater that dissolves a sizable hole in an underground layer of halite (rock salt), gypsum, or other evaporite. If a void becomes so large that the evaporite ...Coal (which consists chiefly of carbon compounds derived from plants and plant debris that have been compacted into firm, brittle rocks) occurs throughout the Osage Cuestas. It was extensively mined in Osage County. Between 1885 and 1892, Osage County had 118 coal mines, which employed more than 2,200 people and produced almost 400,000 tons of ...The Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism now manages 14,500 acres of unreclaimed land and lakes in southeast Kansas as the Mined Land Wildlife Area. The area includes rugged hills created by strip mining and more than 1,000 lakes that developed in unreclaimed ditches. Gob piles, the piles of discarded coal waste and fractured rock ... Of all the water on Earth, more than 96% is too salty to drink. Most of that is in the oceans. Surface water—in lakes, rivers, creeks, ponds, and playas and other wetlands—is our most visible source of freshwater, but it makes up just one-fifteenth of the 1 percent of useable freshwater on Earth. The rest is tied up in frozen glaciers or is groundwater—stored in …The Smoky Hills region in north-central Kansas encompasses a range of hills composed largely of sandstone, a second composed largely of limestone, and a third composed largely of chalk. Although visibly different, they are unified by age—all were formed from sediment deposited during the Cretaceous Period, which lasted from 145 to 66 million ... The Kansas High Plains region is an area of vast flatlands and gently rolling plains. Topographic relief is largely restricted to streams and river valleys and is most notable in the Arikaree Breaks in the far northeast corner of the state, at Point of Rocks along the Cimarron River in the far southwest corner, and around Lake Scott State Park.Shale is a soft, brittle, fine-grained, and easily eroded sedimentary rock formed from mineral-rich silt, or mud, that was deposited in an aquatic environment, buried by other sediment, and compacted and cemented into hard rock. When exposed at the surface by erosion, shale weathers into thin layers called plates.One method is based on magnitude—the amount of energy released at the earthquake source. The other is based on intensity—how much the ground shakes at a specific location. Although several scales have been developed over the years, the two commonly used today in the United States are the moment magnitude scale, which measures magnitude (M ... Their fossils are common in the Pennsylvanian and Permian limestones of eastern Kansas. Brachiopods have an extensive fossil record, first appearing in rocks dating back to the early part of the Cambrian Period, about 541 million years ago. They were extremely abundant during the Paleozoic Era, reaching their highest diversity roughly 400 ... Learn more about earthquakes, sinkholes, landslides, and environmental issues facing Kansas today and the KGS role in addressing them. Discover Kansas’ rich geologic …Like their relatives—starfishes, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, and brittle stars—crinoids are echinoderms, animals with rough, spiny surfaces and a special kind of radial symmetry based on five or multiples of five. Crinoids have lived in the world's oceans since at least the beginning of the Ordovician Period, roughly 485 million years ago.Short-legged rhinoceras (Teleoceras) Teleoceras was a rhinoceros that grazed on grass and lived in Kansas during the Miocene Epoch (23 million to 2.6 million years ago) when the climate was wetter and warmer. With short legs and a long massive body, it was shaped more like a hippopotamus than a modern rhinoceros, although it had a smaller head ...Dolomite. The mineral dolomite is the main component of the sedimentary rock that is also called dolomite. It is similar to the mineral calcite but contains magnesium as well as calcium. Just based on looks, the rock dolomite is often impossible to distinguish from limestone, which is composed mainly of calcite. Dolomite crystals are usually ...The Smoky Hills region in north-central Kansas encompasses a range of hills composed largely of sandstone, a second composed largely of limestone, and a third composed largely of chalk. Although visibly …In 2013, a Wallace County sinkhole in far western Kansas appeared without warning and then grew to more than 200 feet across and 90 feet deep. The KGS determined that natural dissolution of underground halite (rock salt) likely caused the catastrophic collapse. During the dissolution process, groundwater seeped through fractures in layers of ...One method is based on magnitude—the amount of energy released at the earthquake source. The other is based on intensity—how much the ground shakes at a specific location. Although several scales have been developed over the years, the two commonly used today in the United States are the moment magnitude scale, which measures magnitude (M ...Alcove Spring. Alcove Spring in Marshall County is a prime example of the important role springs played in the settlement and early transportation patterns of the United States. It was a stop on a route used by travelers on both the Oregon and California trails in the mid-19th century—including the ill-fated 1846 Donner party that later ...A meteorite is a stony or metallic piece of meteor that reached Earth's surface. Meteorites have been found all over the world, and of the 1,671 verified in the United States as of April 2013, 158 came from Kansas (see Meteorites in the United States ). Stones —composed primarily of silicate minerals (compounds consisting of silicon, oxygen ...Geologic time: A metaphor. Earth is at least 4.6 billion years old. Such an expanse of time is hard to grasp, but it is fundamental to understanding basic geologic processes, such as the build up and erosion of rock layers that shape and reshape Earth's surface. If you squeezed all of Earth's history into one calendar year, the first 4 billion ...Minerals are made of smaller units called elements. A few minerals, called native elements, are made of only one type of element. Of the 20 native elements, sulfur is the only one that occurs naturally in Kansas, and it is found only in small quantities. All other minerals in the state are chemical compounds—a combination of two or more elements.Water in Kansas. In most years, precipitation in the form of rain, sleet, or snow is greatest in eastern Kansas and gradually declines toward the west. The wettest spot, on average, gets 45 inches per year and the driest less than 20 inches. As a result, eastern Kansas has more surface water — rivers, creeks, lakes, and wetlands.Assessment of Groundwater Mineralization in the Upper Arkansas River Corridor. Links. Kansas By County , State Geological Surveys , Repositories of …Vertebrate fossils—of gliding reptiles that dominated the sky, of sharks and swimming reptiles that ruled the sea, of dinosaurs and mammoths that roamed the land—are embedded in Kansas rocks and sediments. Some are common in specific locations. Others, such as dinosaurs, are rare. Several types of sharks and fish lived in the Pennsylvanian ...Based on common landscape features and geological history, geologists have divided Kansas into the 11 different regions shown on the map. Each region tells a unique story about Kansas geology. Arkansas River Lowlands. Chautauqua Hills. Cherokee Lowlands. Flint Hills. Glaciated Region. High Plains. Osage Cuestas.The Cherokee Lowlands region is mainly a gently rolling to flat plain that covers about 1,000 square miles in Bourbon, Crawford, Cherokee, and Labette counties. "Lowland" means it is relatively level compared to other regions, such as the Ozark Plateau region to the southeast. The Cherokee Lowlands developed on the easily eroded shales and ...4 Images. View Gallery. Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve is the only unit in the U.S. National Park System devoted to North America's tallgrass prairie ecosystem, which once covered 170 million acres from Kansas to Indiana and Canada to Texas. Less than 4 percent of the natural prairie remains today, most in the Kansas Flint Hills. A large field of the Sioux quartzite boulders sits on a hillside on Kansas Highway 99 a few miles north of I-70 in Wabaunsee County. The reddish boulders were likely dumped there as the ice melted and the glacier retreated north. Many of the boulders, also known as glacial erratics, are now stained green by lichen. Mount Mitchell Heritage ...Minerals are made of smaller units called elements. A few minerals, called native elements, are made of only one type of element. Of the 20 native elements, sulfur is the only one that occurs naturally in Kansas, and it is found only in small quantities. All other minerals in the state are chemical compounds—a combination of two or more elements. See full list on geokansas.ku.edu Explore Northeast Kansas. Northeast Kansas encompasses the Glaciated physiographic region in the north and part of the Osage Cuestas along its southern edge. At sites in this area, you'll find massive quartzite boulders transported from northern states by glaciers, a water stop vital to travelers on the Oregon Trail, scenic drives, and ...In 2021, Kansas City, MO-KS had a population of 2.18M people with a median age of 37.6 and a median household income of $73299. Between 2020 and 2021 the ...Loess is a finely ground silt that is deposited by the wind. In the High Plains of Kansas, loess was deposited by the wind during the Ice Ages of the past million years. This finely ground silt was formed as glaciers advanced over the continent, pulverizing rocks and sediments in their path. When the glaciers melted, this silt was deposited on ... Like their relatives—starfishes, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, and brittle stars—crinoids are echinoderms, animals with rough, spiny surfaces and a special kind of radial symmetry based on five or multiples of five. …Fossils in Kansas. Fossils specimens: Delocrinus, Acanthoceras, Meganeuropsis. Many Kansas rocks are full of fossils, the remains of plants or animals that have been preserved in rock. Through fossil finds, geologists and paleontologists piece together evidence of earlier life and landscapes on Earth.The Glaciated Region in northeastern Kansas was invaded by at least two of the eight or nine glaciers that ground their way down into the northern United States during the Pleistocene Epoch, between 2.6 million and 11,700 years ago. The first ice sheet to make it to Kansas covered just the far northeastern corner of the state before retreating ...2 Images. Aquifers are underground layers of porous and permeable rock or unconsolidated sediment, such as sand and gravel, that hold water. Porous means that rocks contain pores, or holes, and permeable means the pores are interconnected in a way that allows water to flow from pore to pore. Spaces containing water in sand and gravel or loosely ...Shale is a soft, brittle, fine-grained, and easily eroded sedimentary rock formed from mineral-rich silt, or mud, that was deposited in an aquatic environment, buried by other sediment, and compacted and cemented into hard rock. When exposed at the surface by erosion, shale weathers into thin layers called plates.Learn more about earthquakes, sinkholes, landslides, and environmental issues facing Kansas today and the KGS role in addressing them. Discover Kansas’ rich geologic history, unusual and unexpected topography, and natural resource gems in every corner of the state. Maps, oil and water well drills, seismic sensors, and other geologic tools ... A river basin encompasses two or more watersheds. The main stream draining each watershed runs toward the major river within a river basin. In the Upper Arkansas River basin, streams and runoff from the Pawnee Valley and other watersheds flow into the Arkansas River. Kansas is covered by 12 river basins that also extend into surrounding states.Another catastrophic collapse—known as the Cargill sinkhole because of its proximity to the Cargill Salt company—left railroad tracks dangling precariously in midair and grew to 200 feet in diameter in just 14 hours in 1974. Three weeks later, the diameter stabilized at 300 feet. The KGS uses seismic reflection techniques to study sinkholes.Monument Rocks are composed of the Smoky Hill Chalk Member of the Niobrara Chalk. Despite its name, the Niobrara Chalk is a geologic formation made up mainly but not entirely of chalk, and the layers at Monument Rocks include chalky limestone and chalky shale. The chalk beds first became famous in the 19th century for fossils of giant swimming ...Disclaimer:This web page and accompanying pages are not maintained by the SEG Business Office staff.SEG does not necessarily endorse or concur with representations made on these pages and has no responsibility for the content.Short-legged rhinoceras (Teleoceras) Teleoceras was a rhinoceros that grazed on grass and lived in Kansas during the Miocene Epoch (23 million to 2.6 million years ago) when the climate was wetter and warmer. With short legs and a long massive body, it was shaped more like a hippopotamus than a modern rhinoceros, although it had a smaller head ...The surface of the Wellington-McPherson Lowlands region of south-central Kansas is mainly a relatively flat to rolling alluvial plain, made up of unconsolidated sand, silt, and gravel. The region is dissected by the Arkansas River Lowlands region, which encompasses the Arkansas River floodplain. Within the Wellington-McPherson Lowlands, the ...The Kansas Geological Survey has no regulatory authority but does extensive research concerning water resources, particularly groundwater. As a research and service division of the University of Kansas, it undertakes studies on the analysis of hydrologic basins, the High Plains and Dakota aquifers, recharge, and stream-aquifer interaction. The ...Salt is mined in Kansas using two methods: underground mining and solution mining. Underground mines in Kansas range in depth from 500 to 1,000 feet. With the underground room-and-pillar method of mining, a shaft is drilled through overlying rock to reach the salt deposit. The salt is removed in a checkerboard pattern so that large square ... Ozark Plateau. The Ozark Plateau region is the smallest in Kansas, covering just 55 square miles in the southeastern tip of Cherokee County and the state. It is, however, part of the much larger regional Ozark Plateau that extends tens of thousands of square miles into Missouri, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. In Kansas, the Ozark Plateau region is ...A large field of the Sioux quartzite boulders sits on a hillside on Kansas Highway 99 a few miles north of I-70 in Wabaunsee County. The reddish boulders were likely dumped there as the ice melted and the glacier retreated north. Many of the boulders, also known as glacial erratics, are now stained green by lichen. Mount Mitchell Heritage ...The carapace is divided lengthwise into three lobes (hence, the name trilobite): a prominent central axis and two flatter lobes. The carapace consists of a head, or cephalon, which is typically crescent shaped; a middle region called the thorax, made up of a number of overlapping segments (anywhere from 2 to 61); and a tail, or pygidium, in ...In October 2020, The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), began long‐term in‐stream monitoring downstream from the headwaters of Soldier Creek, a KDHE identified basin with a high probability of large‐scale implementation (more than 50% of area) of soil health best management ...Chalk, a sedimentary rock, is a soft form of limestone that is not well cemented and thus is often powdery and brittle. It usually ranges in color from white to light gray to buff and forms from sediment deposited in a saltwater environment. Composed mostly of the mineral calcite and formed mainly from the remains of floating microorganisms and ...Most sinkholes in central Kansas, whether natural or related to human activities, are the result of dissolution of halite (rock salt) by groundwater in the Hutchinson Salt Member. That thick salt bed—about 350 feet thick and 400 feet deep in the Hutchinson area—formed from deposits of salt and other sediment left behind when a shallow sea covering the area receded about 252 million years ... Dinosaurs appeared and disappeared during the Mesozoic Era, whA large field of the Sioux quartzite boulders sits on a hills Fossils, Paleontology, and Geoarchaeology. Kansas rocks are full of fossils, the remains of plants or animals that have been preserved in rock. Through fossil finds, geologists and paleontologists piece together evidence of earlier life and landscapes on Earth.In January 2001, natural gas explosions in the central Kansas town of Hutchinson killed two people, destroyed two downtown businesses, and created a series of geyser-like spouts of water and gas. The Kansas Geological Survey was instrumental in determining the source of the gas and remediating the problem. KGS researchers used shallow seismic ... GeoKansas. a place to learn about Kansas geology. Earthquakes Butcher Falls, on Pool Creek in Chautauqua County, drops 10 feet over a blocky rock ledge into a pool eroded out of the Plattsmouth Limestone Member of the Oread Limestone. The rock was formed from sediment deposited in shallow seas during the Pennsylvanian subperiod about 323 million to 299 million years ago. Just beyond the pool, Pool Creek ... Minerals are made of smaller units called elements. A few minerals, c...

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More than 450,000 wells related to oil and gas production have been drilled in Kansas. The KGS's interac...

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